Drink Recipes / How to . . .

Espresso 101:  What is it?
12 Step Process for Proper Espresso
Double Espresso (n):
a 1.5 - 2.0 ounce beverage prepared from 18 - 20g of freshly ground coffee through which clean water of 195-205 degrees F has been forced at 9-10 atmospheres of pressure, and where the grind of the coffee is such that the  brew time is 20-30 seconds.
  • Pre-heat the cup (if using a porcelain cup)
  • Remove portafilter, flush group
  • Wipe basket clean and dry
  • Fill (dose to line on portafilter) and level basket (18 - 20 g)
  • Tamp at 30 lbs. pressure - clean loose grounds
  • Insert portafilter into group
  • Immediately start extraction (into the service vessel when possible); 4 - 8 seconds to place cup or shot glasses under portafilter
  • Watch the shot; flow rate; color; crema; 20 - 30 seconds to yield 1.5 - 2.0 oz. double shot
  • Serve or use to make espresso-based drink
  • Remove portafilter; knock out spent coffee
  • Wipe basket clean and flush group
  • Return portafilter to group to keep it pre-heated

Hints and Pointers:

  • Clean flavors cannot come out of dirty equipment
  • Always use fresh coffee; ground just before use
  • Develop a method; practice doing things the same every time
  • Taste. Taste. Taste.
  • Experiment, then taste some more!
  • If it develops too fast then it tastes like lemons, wooden spoons; i.e., 14 seconds for a 2 oz. shot - will be fast and blond
  • If it develops too slow then it tastes burnt, like matches, bitter; turns blond too early
  • "Rocks" (too fast) vs. "Sand" (too slow) - adjust the grind


Steaming and Frothing Milk

Add milk to approximately 1/3 of pitcher
Purge steam wand to release condensation build-up; position over grate
Be careful to NOT burn yourself - if you do, immediately tell your manager and teacher! 

  • Position
    Wipe the steam wand clean with the designated and damp bleach cloth
    Purge wand over grate 
    Angle steam wand slightly away from your machine
    Hold handle of pitcher with non-dominant hand
    Bury tip of steam wand into milk until steam tip is no longer visible, not on the center or on the edge; off-center
    Using other hand (dominant), open steam pressure and immediately stabilize pitcher with both hands 
  • Stretch
    Create micro-foam by gently letting steam tip make contact with surface of milk
    Gentle stretching (injecting air) should sound like ripping paper (tsss, tsss, tsss)
    Stretch milk while still cold (40 - 45 degrees) for 2 - 6 seconds or until desired texture has been reached
    Vigorous stretching will create an undesired foam volume and texture
    Conclude stretching by sinking steam tip below milk's surface (as milk expands, draw pitcher down so steam wand is at surface, not out of milk); keep pitcher stable and level
    Longer stretch => more foam
  • Roll
    Create a vortex by keeping the steam tip just under the milk's surface
    Ensure steam wand position is within 1/2" - 1" from the side of pitcher wall
    Proper position of the steam wand enables the barista to create a controlled vortex
    Use physical (touch) and audio cues  to determine when milk has reached appropriate temperature (140 - 165 degrees F)
    Close steam pressure with dominant hand
    Wipe the steam wand clean with the designated and damp bleach cloth
    Purge wand over grate 

Espresso Drink Definitions

Maintaining/Cleaning the Equipment




Blended Drinks


Frosty Fruit